The Indus Valley in Pakistan is one of the first places we started to urbanise. The first settlement rediscovered in modern times was at Harappa in 1920, after archaeological work starting in 1861. Harari (Sapiens) describes this as part of a period when we started to map our ignorance. Learning includes rediscovering things we have forgotten. Our cultural memories run deep but forget their sources. British rule in the wider area followed the Muslim Empires of the Dehli Sultanate and Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire was a Muslim Persianate started by the descendants of Mongol dynasty of Genghis. Influence came from everywhere (The Indo-European languages show links between Sanskrit and Greek). Pakistan became an independent nation in 1947 (five regions of the British Raj; Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh and Baluchistan). A Civil War resulted in the split of Bangladesh in 1971.