Initially colonialism in most of Africa was colonies - not control. More forcing your way into a bedroom than taking over the house like New World colonies. Settlements and trading cities grew and treaty areas of control were formed/forced. In Djibouti, France signed treaties with the Somali and Afar Sultans to gain a foothold. Railroads were built to Dire Dawe and Addis Ababa making the area an important Red Sea port. In 1958, 1967, and 1977 referendums were held regarding independence from France. The last one brought independence. In 1960 the population of Djibouti was 83,636 and is now around 850,000. Over 90% of the women and girls have undergone female genital mutilation. In 2016, UNICEF estimated some 200 million women in 30 countries had undergone this procedure.