The Independence Referendum in Montenegro in 2006 had a hurdle for recognition of 55%, which it narrowly beat (55.5%). Before that, it had been part of a state union of Serbia and Montenegro, which until 1992 had been part of Yugoslavia. Montenegro had previously been a Kingdom before the formation of Yugoslavia in 1918. Before becoming a Kingdom, it had been a 'Prince-Bishopric'. As the Roman empire fell to Barbarian invaders, Imperial power fell too, and Bishops would take the place of Roman Commanders. In the Byzantine Empire, the Emperors also gave Bishops secular rights. Caesaropapism was a principle of reversing theocracy and making the church a tool of the state. Various family rulers gained independence from Constantinople, but in 1496 it was one of the last Balkan monarchies to fall to Ottoman rule. The current strategic goal is to join the European Union.