Kazakhstan is the 9th largest country in the world. The ancient Turkic word qaz, means "to wander". Historically filled with nomads, it became part of the Mongol Empire created by Genghis Khan in the 13th century. The Mongols invasions went deep into Europe, sacking Kievan Rus. Internal struggles amongst the conquerors led power back to the Nomads who now had a common identity, but the Russians advanced in the 18th and 19th century. The fall of the Soviet Union led to independence in 1991. Kazakhstan has vast mineral resources with an Oil & Gas dominant economy. The 63% Kazakh ethnic majority are part of a broader 140-160 million language group of Turkic people.