The Qing dynasty tried to stay separate from the world. Europe objected to not having access to the market, and not being allowed to sell Opium. They sent battleships. Chinese defeat in 1842 resulted in Hong Kong & five treaty ports being opened to trade. The Japanese had also tried to stay separate. The Sakoku (period of national isolation) had attempted to keep foreigners out for 250 years. The Meiji restoration recognised that Japan had been left behind technologically and attempted to take back power through rapid modernisation over the period from 1868 to 1912. Modernisation led to a push back on the unequal treaties and an attempt to join the age of Imperialism.
Japan Empire in 1942
Russian Empire 1960