Chile is the long skinny country. 4,270km from top to tail (about the same distance as a drive from London to Aleppo), it is only 177km wide on average. Although Spain conquered the Inca in the 16th century, it took till the 19th century to end Mapuche resistance in the south-central areas. In the 1960s and 70s, the country suffered from severe cold war related Left-Right polarisation. A 1973 coup placed the right in charge of a military dictatorship for 16 years. Eventually a coalition Government took power in the same year Nelson Mandela was released. Both, the year after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Chile is now one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations.